Before motorized vehicles animals were the only form of transportation. Oxen’s were the tractors and bulldozers of the Eighteenth Century and horses were the mid size cars to pick-up trucks, mules were the economy version.
Oxen’s or the modern term Ox, is nothing more than a large cow trained to work.
Originating from England the two breeds used in the time period were Milking Shorthorns and Randalls, named for the Vermont family who bred the animal for close to 80 years, more commonly known as Devon/Linebacks.
Milking Shorthorns the larger of the two breeds are moderately docile animals and weigh up to 2300 pounds. Used for milk, meat and work.
Devon/Linebacks average around 2000 pounds are moderately active and excitable. Also, used for milk, meat and work.
In the era of motorized vehicles you can see the influence of the past in today’s technology. Oxen’s are equal to tractor/trailer’s to get goods long distance. Mid-size cars and pick-up trucks are used to handle the everyday errands as horses were. Then there’s the mule, not very practical, speedy, or convenient, but by golly eventually they’ll get there.